Half-lives range from millionths of a second for highly radioactive fission products to billions of years for long-lived materials (such as natural uranium). Iodine-131 has a half-life of 8.02 days (692928 seconds) and therefore its decay constant is: Under the premise that radioactive decay is really random (and not just chaotic), it has been used in hardware random number generators. Since it is assumed that the mechanism of the process does not vary significantly over time, it is also a valuable tool for estimating the absolute age of certain materials. For geological materials, radioisotopes and some of their decay products are trapped when a rock solidifies, and can then be used later (subject to many known reserves) to estimate the date of solidification. This includes checking the results of several simultaneous processes and their products against each other within the same sample. Similarly, and also subject to qualification, the rate of formation of carbon-14 at different times can be estimated, the date of formation of organic matter in a certain period of time related to the half-life of the isotope, since carbon-14 is trapped as organic matter grows and absorbs the new carbon-14 from the air. Subsequently, the amount of carbon-14 in organic matter decreases depending on the decay processes, which can also be verified independently of each other by other means (for example. B, verification of carbon-14 in individual tree rings). Only a year after Röntgen`s discovery of X-rays, the American engineer Wolfram Fuchs (1896) gave the first protection advice, but it was not until 1925 that the first International Congress of Radiology (ICR) took place, which considered the establishment of international standards of protection.
The effects of radiation on genes, including the effect of cancer risk, were recognized much later. In 1927, Hermann Joseph Muller published research showing genetic effects and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1946 for his discoveries. The classification mark of the transport of dangerous goods for radioactive substances Neutrons and protons that form nuclei, as well as other particles that approach them quite closely, are subject to several interactions. The strong nuclear force, which is not observed at the known macroscopic scale, is the strongest force over subatomic distances. The electrostatic force is almost always significant, and in the case of beta decay, the weak nuclear force is also involved. where N0 is the value of N at time t = 0, where the decay constant is expressed in λ, neutrons stabilize the nucleus because they attract each other and protons, helping to balance the electrical repulsion between protons. As a result, as the number of protons increases, an increasing ratio of neutrons to protons is required to form a stable nucleus. If there are too many or too few neutrons for a certain number of protons, the resulting nucleus is not stable and undergoes radioactive decay.
Unstable isotopes decay through various radioactive decay pathways, most commonly alpha decay, beta decay, or electron capture. Many other rare types of decay, such as spontaneous fission or neutron emission, are known. It should be noted that all these decay pathways can be accompanied by the subsequent emission of gamma radiation. Pure alpha or beta decays are very rare. Such a collapse (a gamma decay event) requires some activation energy. For a snow avalanche, this energy comes as a disturbance from outside the system, although such disturbances can be arbitrarily small. In the case of an excited atomic nucleus, which decays by gamma radiation in a spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation, the arbitrarily small disturbance of the fluctuations of the quantum vacuum occurs.  The daughter nuclide of a decay event may also be unstable (radioactive). In this case, it will also disintegrate and produce radiation.
The nuclide resulting from the second daughter can also be radioactive. This can lead to a sequence of multiple decay events called decay chains (see this article for specific details on important natural decay chains). Finally, a stable nuclide is produced. All decay daughters that are the result of alpha decay also cause the creation of helium atoms. where Ntotal is the constant number of particles during the decay process, which is equal to the initial number of nuclides A, because it is the initial substance. The units of activity (the curie and the becquerel) can also be used to characterize a total amount of controlled or accidental releases of radioactive atoms. ORIGEN, for example, is a computer code system for calculating the accumulation, decay and processing of radioactive materials. ORIGEN uses a matrix exponential method to solve a large system of coupled, linear, and ordinary first-order differential equations (similar to Bateman`s equations) with constant coefficients. The law of radioactive decay is a universal law that describes the statistical behavior of a large number of nuclides. Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive decay, or nuclear decay) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy through radiation. A material that contains unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Three of the most common types of decay are alpha decay (α decay), beta decay (β decay) and gamma decay (γ decay), in which one or more particles are emitted.
The weak force is the mechanism responsible for beta decay, while the other two are determined by the electromagnetic and strong forces.  When N (particle number) is the total number of particles in the sample, A (total activity) is the number of decays per unit time of a radioactive sample, m is the mass of the remaining radioactive material. Table with examples of half-lives and decay constants. Note that short half-lives are associated with large decay constants. Short-lived radioactive materials are much more radioactive, but obviously lose their radioactivity quickly. (A theoretical process of positron capture, analogous to electron capture, is possible in antimatter atoms, but has not been observed because complex antimatter atoms beyond antihelium are not available experimentally.  Such decay would require antimatter atoms at least as complex as beryllium-7, the lightest known isotope of normal matter, to decay by electron capture.) For the general case of any number of successive decays in a decay chain, i.e. A1 → A2 ··· → Ai ··· → AD, where D is the number of decays and i is a dummy index (i = 1, 2, 3, . D), any population of nuclides can be found in relation to the previous population. In this case, N2 = 0, N3 = 0,…, ND = 0.
The use of the above leads to a recursive form: radioactivity is a very common example of exponential decay. The law of radioactive decay describes the statistical behavior of a large number of nuclides and not individual nuclides. In the next relation, the number of nuclides or population of nuclides, N, is of course a natural number. For a sample of a particular radioisotope, the number of decay events, −dN, that are expected to occur in a small time interval, is dt, proportional to the number of atoms present, that is, the law of radioactive decay states that the probability per unit of time that a nucleus will decay is a constant, regardless of time. This constant is called the decay constant and is denoted by λ, “lambda”. This constant probability can vary greatly between different types of nuclei, resulting in the many different decay rates observed. The radioactive decay of a number of atoms (mass) is exponential over time. The Bateman equations for the radioactive decay of the n-n-nuclide series in linear chain, which describe the concentrations of nuclides, are as follows: The unit of the International System of Units (SI) of radioactive activity is the becquerel (Bq), named after the scientist Henri Becquerel.
A Bq is defined as one transformation (or decay or decay) per second. When calculating radioactivity, one of the two parameters (decay constant or half-life) characterizing the decay rate must be known. There is a relationship between the half-life (t1/2) and the decay constant λ. The relation can be derived from the law of decay by N = 1/2 No. It follows: With this value for the decay constant, we can determine the activity of the sample: when analyzing the type of decay products, it was obvious, from the direction of the electromagnetic forces exerted on the radiation by external magnetic and electric fields, that the alpha particles carried a positive charge, the beta particles a negative charge and the gamma rays were neutral. From the size of the distraction, it was clear that alpha particles were much more massive than beta particles. The passage of alpha particles through a very thin glass window and their trapping in a discharge tube allowed the researchers to study the emission spectrum of the captured particles and ultimately prove that alpha particles are helium nuclei. Other experiments have shown that beta radiation resulting from decay and cathode rays are high-speed electrons. It has also been found that gamma radiation and X-rays are high-energy electromagnetic radiation. The primordial radioactive nuclides found on Earth are remnants of ancient supernova explosions that took place before the formation of the solar system. They are the part of the radionuclides that have survived from this time, through the formation of the primordial solar nebula, through planetary accretion and up to the present day.
The natural short-lived radiogenic radionuclides found in today`s rocks are the daughters of these radioactive urnuclides. Another small source of natural radioactive nuclides are cosmogenic nuclides, which are formed by the bombardment of matter by cosmic rays in the Earth`s atmosphere or crust. The decay of radionuclides in the rocks of the Earth`s mantle and crust contributes significantly to the Earth`s internal thermal balance. .